I was attracted to a review article on this topic in the September 2015 issue of the World’s Poultry Science Journal (Harlander-Matauschek et al, vol.71, pp 461-472). It is the outcome of an International Keel Bone Workshop held in Switzerland in 2014. For local interest, I also reviewed the paper of Petrik et al in Poultry Science, vol.94, pp579-585.
Unusually for a review paper, this one is primarily targeted at what is not known, and mainly consists of 9 recommendations for further study.
Most scientists in the field, and also experienced managers of layers, intuitively know that the keels of laying hens are susceptible to damage during the laying cycle. This was first brought to light several years ago when scientists in England examined carcases of spent hens following slaughter, and found a high incidence of keel damage and breakage. The degree to which this causes pain or distress during the life of the birds is not known.
In live birds, damage to the keel can only be determined by palpation, and there is no recognized standard method, or protocol for evaluating or reporting the results. There is also the distinction between actual fracture of the keel, and various levels of distortion or deformity. Fractures usually result in a callus around the fracture site that can be detected on handling the bird. So the first recommendation in the review paper is to develop a uniform method of evaluating keel bone damage so that future results will be comparable. Petrik et al studied only keel fractures.
The second recommendation was to investigate the kind of event or bird activity that results in keel damage. In non-cage systems, collisions with other birds and with furniture and equipment are thought to be some of the factors. However, even in conventional cages, keel damage occurs, but the reasons are not known.
Another unknown is whether initial deviation or distortion of the keel, from whatever cause, may result in keel fracture.
Do birds reared in different environments have different potential for keel bone damage in adult life? This is yet another unanswered question. Growing birds in an environment where wing flapping is encouraged is thought to improve locomotor skills and thus may avoid some of the (also largely unknown) challenges that result in keel damage.
In non-cage laying systems, individual birds as well as groups may display escape reactions to events that result in panic or fright. This can result in keel bone damage. These events may result from management activities and are thus susceptible to variation and potential improvement, but they must first be identified and studied.
As with any, even imprecisely measured, characteristic, there is always the question of a genetic influence. Interestingly, these 21st century scientists managed to find a study reported in 1955 showing that the tendency to develop keel deformity could be altered by genetic selection. Whether the methods used in this selection experiment would be relevant to contemporary keel damage observations would need to be confirmed.
If genetics is involved, can nutrition also play a part in affecting keel bone damage? The answer to this question is, of course, related to how nutrition influences bone development and maintenance. And this in turn may be related to the interactions involved in egg shell deposition and bone integrity. The likelihood of direct involvement of calcium balance as it affects shell deposition and keel bone integrity is probably low. This is because the calcium flow from bones to the egg shell gland is from the long bones and not the keel.
There are large differences in keel fracture incidence between housing systems and even within similar systems. Perches, although considered desirable from a welfare standpoint, seem to result in elevated keel damage and fracture. But different materials used for perches result in widely variable keel damage. Round metal perches seem to be inferior to other designs. Petrik et al’s work in Ontario compared keel fractures in conventional cages with single tiered floor housing and found almost double the incidence in the floor systems.
The final recommendation from the Harlander-Matauschek paper in to investigate and quantify keel bone damage and production losses. A new report (as yet unpublished) shows that birds with keel fractures laid eggs with reduced shell breaking strength. This would represent a serious challenge if confirmed. The fact that most of the keel fractures appear to occur during the period of peak egg production would suggest that the nutrient status of the affected birds is inadequate to support both maximum egg production and bone maintenance. The inadequacy must be minimal though, since many flocks continue to lay at or near peak level for many months and if keel damage is compromising productivity, its effect must be very small.
In reading this research, one can sense the authors’ frustration at the lack of clear information. Obviously, much more research is needed before industry would be able to take firm action to deal with this problem.
Cargill has launched a new proprietary feed formulating platform called the Cargill Nutrition System (CNS). It combines nutrient analysis of feed ingredients from all over the world, and is updated constantly with the latest feed research and Cargill ingredient sourcing – all to provide livestock producers with clarity and consistency in making feed decisions.
The database behind CNS is comprised of over 2 million nutrient samples, covering more than 200 ingredients and 10 million annual nutrient predictions, explains Dr. Jason Shelton, Cargill Animal Nutrition global technology application director. “This data is combined with the knowledge and experience of Cargill Animal Nutrition’s 18,000 employees, including more than 500 research and development professionals,” he says. “It’s all about providing customers with certainty in feed application to achieve the desired results, rather than just a ‘best guess.’”
What stands out about the CNS is that wherever producers are located in the world, and no matter what their production target goals, they will receive unique feed formulations. The system accounts for climate factors, nutrient-content requirements and cost considerations of available ingredients. Vitamin D and Omega-3 ingredients are included in the system. Shelton says that the specificity of CNS can help farmers achieve similar or better production results at a lower cost, at the same time reducing nitrogen and phosphorus supplementation with a consequent excretion reduction anywhere from 10 to 40 percent. Better for producers and better for the planet.
Recently, poultry customers in Indonesia went through a CNS review process. It was discovered that by decreasing levels of crude protein and changing amino acid and fiber levels in the feed, farmers would see improved animal performance along with better feed cost per unit of production. The wetness of the litter was reduced as well when the feed changes were made. CNS was also instrumental in a recent trial in Switzerland, where a reduction in calcium and phosphorus levels and an increase in phytase in broiler feeds led to better feed costs per unit of production and easier compliance with local environmental legislation. The amount of phosphorus declared on the label of the feed was reduced by more than 10 percent, which allowed farms using the feed to meet government regulations relating to having a balanced nutrient input/output.
CNS is also built into Cargill’s MAX modelling system to provide producers with alternative options, if for example, a major crop failure occurs or the price of common ingredients like corn or soy spikes, Shelton explains. “In the U.S., Canada and Mexico, CNS employs the MAX modeling system in pork and beef in the U.S. and Mexico, and for dairy and pork in Canada,” he notes. “It is now being rolled out for poultry globally. A Canadian pilot project will begin late this summer/early fall and is slated for full deployment across North America during summer 2016.” Shelton says the MAX modeling system matches availability of supply for ingredients, with farm needs or predicted needs to meet production goals. “So, if you have this or that ingredient mix, MAX will give you the price change and the performance prediction change,” he explains. “It’s the CNS with a prediction model.” For its part, Cargill provides its own feed (under the Purina and Nutrena brands) and pre-mixes (under the Provimi brand) in every province, and all Cargill feed products are now being developed using CNS.
In addition to MAX modelling, CNS also supports ‘Reveal,’ a system that analyzes ingredient variability and nutrient content. It’s useful for farmers who make their own feed, which is gaining in popularity among Canadian poultry producers. It’s estimated that the percentage who make their own feed is as high as 30 to 40 percent, depending on the region. “The customer could have ten different corn meals, or ten different soybean samples for example,” Shelton says, “and using the analysis results, is assisted with choosing ingredients for his or her own formulations.” ‘Reveal’ is also licensed to feed mills.
In terms of specific environmental or regulatory issues in Canada that CNS helps solve, Shelton says that “By implementing CNS in Canada, emissions of nitrogen to the environment can be reduced. This is because CNS allows for a reduction of the total protein that is fed to animals, resulting thus in better utilization of dietary nitrogen, even with better performance of animals.”
“Reductions in nitrogen and phosphorus excretion are two important environmental concerns,” adds Dr. Bruno Marty, director of nutrition for Cargill’s animal nutrition business in Canada. “Excessive nitrogen excretion in poultry primarily results from an amino acid imbalance between feed supply and animal demand. Through the more accurate description of digestible amino acids, CNS reduces these imbalances and consequently waste.” Marty says the same concept applies to phosphorus, where contribution from plant-based feedstuffs is poorly digested by poultry. For this nutrient, CNS additionally estimates the quantity of phosphorus liberated by the application of phytase enzyme technology which enhances phosphorus digestibility and thus nutrient efficiency.
Marty agrees that every region in Canada faces specific feed challenges which change with shifting ingredient market conditions and CNS is designed to help with that. “A CNS analysis might find the best value may come from the use of non-traditional feedstuffs and by-products,” he says. “It’s all about helping producers to more accurately assess for digestible nutrients to support animal performance and long-term business goals.”
Although only viruses of the Influenza virus A genus are known to infect birds, the complexity of this genus is increased by the possible combinations of the subtypes present, based on the antigenicity of surface glycoproteins hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA). Each virus consists of one of the 18 identified HA antigens and one of the 11 NA antigens, generating a large number of virus subtypes.
Avian Influenza (AI) is classified based on the severity of the disease caused; highly pathogenic AI (HPAI) and low pathogenicity AI (LPAI). HPAI is restricted to strains with H5 and H7 subtypes exhibiting a multi-basic cleavage site (MBCS) at the precursor of the HA molecule. HPAI is a ‘dead-end infection’ in certain domestic birds and its effects are variable in domestic waterfowl and feral birds, in which it may or may not cause clinical signs and mortality. Viruses belonging to subtypes without the MBCS are maintained in feral bird populations and serve as an ever-present source of the virus. A large portion of the influenza gene pool is present in waterfowl whereas shorebirds and gulls maintain a number of isolated subtypes of the virus. These viruses cause LPAI when introduced into domestic bird populations.
Several mechanisms result in the virus mutating to HPAI once the LPAI (H5 and H7 subtypes) is introduced into poultry. However the factors that bring about this mutation are not fully understood and can occur at any time. It is therefore imperative that both LPAI and HPAI should be controlled.
The complexity of the variants of the virus, their omnipresence in nature and the ability to mutate to a highly pathogenic strain from a low pathogenic strain all contribute to the challenge that this virus presents to the poultry industry.
Transmission of the virus between birds is poorly understood, although research suggests that bird-to-bird transmission is extremely complex and determined by the virus strain, bird species and environmental factors. Studies also show that the virus is present in considerable quantities in bird feces, to the extent that the virus can be isolated from untreated lake water in waterfowl habitats. Nonetheless, the primary route of introduction of AI virus in domestic poultry occurs through direct or indirect contact with infected birds affirming that implementation of biosecurity measures at the farm level can prevent AI infections.
CPRC has been funding AIV studies since 2006 and has committed almost $520 thousand to 11 research projects with total research budgets of more than $2.5 million. This research has looked at a range of issues associated with AIV. The issues studied included:
- Identifying the molecular determinants that confer a bird’s immunity to the virus and the immune system cells that recognize these determinants. The project was also aimed at determining the dynamics of immune system cells in response to AI virus infection and the genetic pathways that control that response.
- Three related-research projects from the first Poultry Science Cluster investigated adaptation of AIV from its natural reservoir in wild fowl to domestic poultry, how avian influenza is transmitted to domestic poultry and the bird’s immune response to AIV. These projects provided information that is important to developing AIV controls and responses.
- AIV vaccines are difficult to create because the virus is prone to change that interferes with a vaccine’s activity. Researchers investigated the use of RNA interference (RNAi), a natural mechanism present in many animals including birds, that can decrease the activity of specific cellular genes and has been shown to serve as a natural antiviral response. This research could lead to improvements in a bird’s natural immunity.
- An ongoing series of projects have been moving toward development of an effective AIV vaccine and delivery system to provide poultry with broad protection delivered efficiently and effectively. This research is being continued in CPRC’s second Poultry Science Cluster and has already provided patentable results.
- Present approaches to testing for exposure to avian influenza for the national surveillance program are based on taking blood samples from birds and sending them to a laboratory for analysis. CPRC is supporting research that will evaluate a standardized test to use egg-derived immunoglobin for screening of antibodies to avian influenza to avoid the stress and cost associated with handling birds and taking blood samples.
CPRC and its member organizations will continue to support research on this important threat to Canadian poultry production in its ongoing research activities.
Given the experience British Columbia has had with avian influenza (AI), the British Columbia Ministry of Agriculture (BCMA) is now trying to develop an early warning system for the disease.
Because AI originates in wild waterfowl, BCMA environmental epidemiologist Michelle Coombe says the BCMA has started collecting and testing “pond scum” in wild waterfowl resting areas to determine the presence of AI. The hope is the environmental sampling can be used “as an early warning system for both poultry and human health,” she told the first annual B.C. poultry symposium, held May 27th in Abbotsford.
Since AI is shed in wild duck feces, testing the droppings is bound to be more efficient than waiting for dead wild birds to show up at the BCMA animal health lab.
“The results will tell us what strains are present in the environment and how prevalent they are,” Coombe said, adding the test results would be used to give industry green, yellow or red alerts similar to what is done during forest fire season.
BCMA avian pathologist Vicki Bowes said BC’s experience with its 2014-15 AI outbreak is “much different” than in 2004. “We had a very successful disease containment result.”
AI was detected on only 11 commercial premises and two backyard flocks in the Fraser Valley, leading to the destruction of less than 250,000 birds. The 2004 outbreak was only contained through a mass depopulation of over 18 million birds.
“Considering the density (of the Fraser Valley poultry industry), this is an incredible success story,” Bowes said. “The initial producers did what was right.”
She also credited the BCMA’s AI-certified Level 3 containment lab, telling producers “you’re so lucky we’re here.”
Dr. Stewart Ritchie of Canadian Poultry Consultants, the symposium’s chief organizers, acknowledged both the lab and Bowes’ own considerable contributions by giving her the first “B.C. Excellence in Poultry Service and Leadership Award” on behalf of a grateful industry.
While B.C. has learned the value of and benefitted from good biosecurity practices, American producers did not appear to heed those lessons.
“The United States is definitely a mess,” said COBB Vantress technical services manager Shawn Carlton of Arkansas. “We have already lost eight per cent of our total egg production.”
Between December and June, AI had been confirmed on over 200 commercial and backyard flocks in 15 US states, leading to the destruction of close to 50,000,000 birds. Almost 80 per cent of the cases were in Minnesota and Iowa, part of the Mississippi flyway. Only 10 were in the Pacific Flyway (which stretches from California to Alaska).
The best way to manage AI and other crippling diseases is to keep them out of a poultry flock in the first place, and that takes excellent biosecurity. Carlton says no one takes that more seriously than Cobb. As one of the world’s main producers of poultry breeding stock, their birds are among the most valuable in the world.
“Just one of our pedigree hens leads to 25,000 parents which leads to 3,000,000 broilers. It’s major dollars,” Carlton pointed out.
The first line of defense is to distance a flock from other producers. While that is difficult, if not impossible, to do in the Fraser Valley and many other poultry-dense production areas, Cobb has done that by locating its Oklahoma breeding facility on 500 acres in the middle of a 3,600-acre farm. It then restricts all movement on and off the facility and requires all workers to wear protective clothing and footwear and shower in and out of each barn.
“My record is 13 showers in one day,” Carlton said.
While AI dominated the symposium, several speakers touched on other diseases, such as Marek’s disease and IBD (infectious bursal disease), which may not spread as quickly as AI but can also devastate individual flocks.
Marek’s usually shows up when birds are about 13 weeks of age. During the 20 weeks it takes the flock to build up enough resistance to fight off the disease, it can cause reduced performance and up to 50 per cent mortality, says Hyline Chicks technical services veterinarian Dr. Danielle Botting of Iowa.
IBD generally infects younger chicks. It has variable mortality, increases the bird’s susceptibility to other diseases and may even lead to Marek’s. Botting recommends vaccinating birds for Marek’s on the day of hatch and for IBD at 18, 24 and 30 days of age using a live vaccine.
She stressed the need to use good vaccination practices as poor vaccination is sometimes worse than no vaccination at all. In a poorly vaccinated flock, a disease could nestle in unvaccinated birds and build up resistance to the vaccinations. She also strongly recommended thorough cleaning and disinfecting (C&D) and 4-6 weeks of downtime between flocks.
“We can’t reiterate how important C&D is,” Botting said, stressing a barn should be washed and dried before a disinfectant is used.
“Removing debris is most important. Disinfectants don’t remove dirt,” Carlton added.
Saying a barn has accumulated three million units of debris/square inch by the end of a flock, Merial Canada technical services vet Dr. Louis Coulombe of Quebec detailed the effectiveness of various C&D options. Blowing the barn down with air only reduces debris by 3.4%. Airing it out drops it down by 31%. Washing with water and detergent reduces the debris count to 100,000 while finishing up with a disinfectant drops the number below 1,000.
He recommends using a gel detergent, saying it does not drip like a foam detergent, can be left on the walls longer and is easy to rinse off. He also urges growers to use a product like CID 2000 to clean and disinfect the drinking water pipeline.
While University of Arkansas poultry science extension specialist Dr. Susan Watkins also advocates the use of CID 2000 between flocks, she said it should not stop there. She urged growers to add 25-50 ppm of hydrogen peroxide to their water lines as a daily cleaner.
“Poultry water systems are perfect for growing bugs,” she said.
Instead of just using antibiotics, also known as anti-microbials, (AM’s) to treat diseases when they occur, many poultry producers have been relying on them to prevent disease outbreaks and/or boost bird performance.
“We use more antibiotics in Canada than in the US,” asserted Jan Breckman of JEFO Nutrition.
However, that will change as jurisdictions outlaw their use in order to stave off building resistance to those antibiotics in humans and food processors and retailers, such as Pilgrim and Tyson Foods in the US and A&W in Canada respond to consumer concerns by promoting antibiotic free chicken.
“A&W says their current no hormones and no antibiotics campaign is their most successful ever,” Breckman noted.
Even though Saskatchewan epidemiological consultant Dr. Leigh Rosengren said it is “unfair” to point at agriculture for all of society’s ills, noting only three of the 17 resistant infections in humans are food-borne related, she said producers must “reduce your reliance on AM’s so we can retain their use in animals.”
Her list of ways to reduce AM usage includes preventing infections in the first place through good biosecurity, good hygiene and reduced stocking density and increasing disease surveillance to permit early detection.
She urged producers to work closely with their vets to “know what you’re treating, what you’re using and why,” and to support the Canadian Poultry Research Council’s research into alternatives.
Finally, she said producers must step up their communication with and education of consumers.
“Let’s find out what the public thinks or knows and talk about how and why we are using those products.”
August 27, 2015 - Aviagen has announced it will continue its contribution to the Canadian Poultry Research Council (CPRC) through the CPRC’s Research Sponsorship Program.
Aviagen has presented the CPRC with a check for $25,000 in support of the program. This check represents the fourth in a series of annual sponsorships contributed to the CPRC since 2012, qualifying Aviagen as a Platinum sponsor of the program.
Established in 2001, the CPRC creates and implements programs for poultry research throughout Canada. The goal of the CPRC’s research is to effect discoveries that lead to improved food safety through enhanced poultry nutrition. The programs also focus on heightened environmental safety measures.
“The CPRC has made invaluable contributions to the success of Canada’s poultry industry. Vast components of the poultry value chain stand to benefit from the research conducted by the CPRC, including producers, feed suppliers, animal health care companies, processors, distributors and ultimately, consumers,” explains Scott Gillingham, Canadian
Regional Business Consultant for Aviagen. “Aviagen is proud to support the organization’s research efforts and we look forward to continued collaboration in the future.”
CPRC Executive Director Bruce Roberts, Ph.D., says he values Aviagen’s support of the council. “Aviagen has helped fund 29 projects, enabling us to address critical issues such as poultry welfare, alternatives to the use of antimicrobials in poultry production, poultry health food safety and the environment,” adds Roberts. “As a premier sponsor of the program, Aviagen assists the CPRC not only financially, but also through cooperation and sharing of ideas and expertise. In addition to its value add to the CPRC, Aviagen supports Canadian university research activities outside of the CPRC. For these reasons, Aviagen should be commended for its strong commitment to advancing the poultry industry on a global basis.”
Roberts concludes that efforts are currently underway for considerable future marketing and expansion of the CPRC’s Research Sponsorship Program.
August 17, 2015- Registration for the Poultry Service Industry Workshop (PSIW) is now open. Celebrating its 40th year, the PSIW is recognized as one of the leading poultry workshops in North America, having a program that is focused on relevant, contemporary and practical topics. For more information, visit www.poultryworkshop.com
August 4, 2015 - A new study with broiler chickens shows that supplementation with a multi-carbohydrase enzyme formulation can substantially boost the nutritional power of camelina meal, a unique feed source on the rise in Canada and the U.S.
Results were unveiled at the 2015 Poultry Science Association (PSA) Annual Meeting, July 27-30 in Louisville, Kentucky.
“Camelina is the new kid on the block as a feed option for poultry,” says Rob Patterson of Canadian Bio-Systems Inc. (CBS Inc.), who conducted the study along with Dr. Tofuko Woyengo and Dr. Ruurd Zijlstra of the University of Alberta. “Our study confirms it has a lot to offer from a nutritional standpoint and that using the right formulation of multi-carbohydrase is an effective way to capture more of that full nutritional value.”
While it’s one thing to have strong nutritional value, it’s another to make sure as much of that value as possible is available for absorption and use by the animals, explains Patterson, CBS Inc. Technical Director. Multi-carbohydrase enzyme technology, with its multiple enzyme sources and activities, acts as a universal key that frees nutrients from a number of otherwise hard-to-digest feed components. “This supports the maximum nutrient extraction possible for energy and growth.”
Camelina, also known as ‘false flax’ or ‘wild flax,’ is an oilseed crop that initially experienced significant demand before the recent era of dominance of rapeseed and canola. The unique crop, recognized as an excellent source of Omega-3, is now enjoying a fresh resurgence due to its advantages as an option for healthy oils, biofuels, high-end bio-lubricants and bio-plastics, and even jet fuel. It grows well on the Canadian prairies and in key U.S. growing regions, where it is well adapted and has resistance to many common pathogens and pests.
“The rise in camelina production is now becoming a good news story for livestock and poultry industries, because the residual meal left over after oil extraction has shown an attractive nutritional profile for animal feed,” says Patterson. “As an added advantage, the high concentration of Omega-3 oils in the meal has been shown to produce Omega meat in broiler chickens – making it a great source not only of high quality feed but as an means of adding value to poultry products.”
The study highlighted at PSA 2015 focused on variations of a diet using corn and cold-pressed camelina cake (CPCC). Diets that included multi-carbohydrase supplementation showed a substantial increase in the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of three different major amino acids – methionine, threonine and tryptophan – along with a strong overall boost to the apparent metabolizable energy, N-corrected (AMEn) value of the diet, which increased by 5.6 percent.
The AMEn value shows the difference between the gross energy in the feed and the gross energy in the feces, urine and gasses, to reflect how much energy is actually captured by the animal instead of passed through undigested.
“The results show multi-carbohydrase is effective with camelina meal and strong gains are possible,” says Patterson. “Indications are the level of advantage can be further increased depending on the level of multi-carbohydrase used and the overall diet composition. Each poultry operation can determine the ratios that work best economically and effectively for them, depending on their own specific objectives and feeding approaches.”
Earlier this year Canadian approval was granted for feeding cold-pressed non-solvent extracted camelina meal to broiler chickens at up to 12 per cent inclusion, and approval for inclusion in layer feed is also being considered.
Similarly, the U.S.-FDA has expressed “no objection” to feeding camelina meal to broiler chickens and laying hens up to 10 per cent of their final diet.
The CBS Inc. and University of Alberta study involved 600 male broiler chicks divided into 40 groups and fed five diets in a completely randomized design with eight groups per diet, from 15 to 21 days of age.Differences were observed among variations of a corn-based basal diet, the same basal diet with 30 percent replaced by CPCC, and both of these diets without or with multi-carbohydrase enzymes supplementation, as well as an N-free diet.
The corn-based basal diet was fed to determine nutrient digestibility and retention for CPCC by substitution. The N-free diet was fed to estimate basal endogenous amino acid losses, for determining the SID of amino acids.On a dry matter basis, CPCC contained 39.8 percent crude protein, 1.89 percent lysine, 0.70 percent methionine, 1.56 percent threonine 0.45 percent tryptophan, 12.7 percent ether extract, and 38.3 percent neutral detergent fiber. In addition to boosting the availability and absorption of methionine, threonine and tryptophan, multi-carbohydrase increased the AMEn value of CPCC from 1,533 to 2,072 kcal/kg of dry matter.
The specific multi-carbohydrase formulation used in the study was Omegazyme from CBS Inc. More information on Omegazyme is available at www.canadianbio.com.
Recent scientific advancements indicate that all types of canola meal could effectively replace soybean meal in poultry rations Photo by Canadian Bio-Systems Inc.
July 9, 2015 - A new era of opportunity has emerged for Canadian canola meal as a premium, highly sought feed ingredient across livestock sectors around the world.
One of the keys to unlock its full potential lies in groundbreaking scientific advances to understand and capture the hidden nutritive power of dietary fibre, says Dr. Bogdan Slominski of the University of Manitoba, a featured speaker at the International Rapeseed Congress, July 5-9 in Saskatoon.
Three key approaches include breeding for superior yellow-seeded canola, utilizing new dehulling options and harnessing the power of new multi-carbohydrase enzyme formulations designed to break down fibre and enhance nutrient utilization for monogastric animals such as pigs and poultry.
“The dietary fibre story is really where a lot of the secret lies to truly maximize the feed value of canola meal,” says Slominski, a leading expert in carbohydrate chemistry and new feed ingredient evaluations. “The more we understand about the composition of dietary fibre and the options to address it, the more success we can achieve to benefit producers, industry and the end-use customer. Today is an exciting time with lots of advances showing excellent promise.”
As canola production has rocketed ahead over the past decade, primarily in Canada but also in the U.S. and other key jurisdictions, the potential has risen for more livestock operations to take advantage of canola meal as a valuable feed protein source. The main advantages of canola meal typically include good protein content, good amino acid profile, high oil content and a complex carbohydrate matrix, along with good selenium and phosphorous content. Like many vegetable protein sources, canola meal is limiting in lysine but has high levels of methionine and cysteine.
However dietary fibre is also a significant component that presents an ‘X Factor’ with implications for nutritional value, processing approaches and feeding strategies, says Slominski.
“Our latest knowledge from research studies confirms the dietary fibre component of canola meal is actually quite high,” he explains. “This is a consequence of the small size and also the high oil content of canola seed, which is roughly 42 to 45 per cent. In fact, the neutral detergent fibre and total dietary fibre values of canola meal are higher than those of soybean meal.”
Certain processing approaches such as pre-press solvent extraction and use of the desolventizer-toaster can further increase the dietary fibre content, he says. Based on the recent surveys conducted in Canada, the content of neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and total dietary fibre (TDF) of canola meal averaged 29.6 and 38.0 percent dry matter (DM), respectively, and ranged from 27.1 to 33.4 percent for NDF, and from 34.8 to 41.9 percent for TDF.
However science and technology advances are set to help manage this component, to support higher demand and value for canola meal, says Slominski.
Superior quality characteristics of newly developed yellow-seeded B. napus canola and canola-quality B. juncea mustard have been demonstrated, he says. Although canola meal from these sources is significantly lower in dietary fibre, studies have shown similar growth performance parameters in broiler chickens and turkeys to those fed conventional canola meal and soybean meal, when diets were formulated based on digestible amino acids and available energy contents.
“This indicates that all types of canola meal could effectively replace soybean meal in poultry rations,” says Slominski. “Also, that the development of low-fiber canola would result in quantitative changes as evidenced by increased oil, protein, and sucrose contents, rather than qualitative changes due to decreased fiber content.”
With hull removal, when evaluating the meal from the tail-end dehulling process using sieving technology, a significant increase in protein content of the dehulled versus standard meal (from 36.8 to 42.0 percent) and a substantial reduction in the content of dietary fiber (from 30.0 to 21.4 percent) were noted, he says. However, when diets were balanced for major nutrients and fed to young broiler chickens and weaned pigs, no difference in growth performance was observed. “This indicates that most of canola fiber is simply a diluent with minimal effect on nutrient utilization.”
One of the most promising and fresh areas of advancement is the new higher power of certain feed enzyme formulations to unlock more nutrients from otherwise indigestible fibre, says Slominski. “Recent studies and literature reviews show that substantial gains in nutrient utilization are possible for all species with properly formulated and applied enzyme supplementation. Also,this approach can make feasible the use of full-fat canola or off-grades of canola seed that can represent an economic,well-balanced source of protein.”
Because canola meal is a complex feed ingredient with multiple hard-to-digest components,research trials by Slominski and others indicate that multi-carbohydrase formulationsare more effective than single enzymes. Specifically, Slominski says fibre components of canola meal, including non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) and glycoproteins, may serve as substrates for multi-carbohydrase enzymes and support the release of additional energy. This is documented by increased apparent metabolizable energy (AME) of 100-150 kcal/kg of canola meal.
"Multi-carbohydrase technology represents the leading-edge of our science-based knowledge on the most effective use of feed enzymes," says Slominski. "It leverages what we have learned from many years of research to offer a much more comprehensive and sophisticated option than traditional approaches."
Dr. Bogdan Slominski has received the Synergy Award for Innovation from the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada as well as the National Research Council Award for Innovation in Industrial Research (with Canadian Bio-Systems Inc.). He currently serves on the Scientific Advisory Committee for the Canadian Poultry Research Council and is a member of the Poultry Science and World’s Poultry Science Association.
July 23, 2015 - Poultry industry representatives had an opportunity to connect with the researchers whose discoveries help their industry at a mid-July barbeque held at the University of Guelph.
A joint venture of the University of Guelph, Livestock Research Innovation Corporation (LRIC),Poultry Industry Council (PIC), and the Poultry Health Research Network (PHRN), the poultry industry barbeque brought together industry leaders from the poultry commodity groups and industry with University of Guelph leaders, including UofG President Dr. Franco Vaccarino, UofG Vice President of Research Dr. Malcolm Campbell and Ontario Veterinary College Interim Dean Dr. Kerry Lissemore, and researchers from across the campus and beyond. In welcoming the group, Ed Verkley, a director with Chicken Farmers of Ontario and chair of the Poultry Industry Council, noted just how important research is for the industry. The Poultry Industry Council works with the industry to deliver poultry extension services, event coordination, program and project management while supporting research for the poultry sector. The poultry industry is incredibly important to the economy, said UofG president Dr. Franco Vaccarino as he addressed the group. “Knowledge in action is so very important,” he noted, “and this partnership is an example of that.” He added UofG is doing research at all levels from molecular to production and the questions researchers address often come from the industry. “The goal of this event was to create a forum for enhanced interactions and dialogue between researchers, as part of the Poultry Health Research Network, and our industry partners,” said Dr. Shayan Sharif, with the Ontario Veterinary College’s Pathobiology department and leader of the PHRN. “By all accounts, this forum delivered what it was meant to do.” The University of Guelph has had a long-standing commitment to animal health with one of the largest groups of poultry scientists and poultry experts in North America. The Poultry Health Research Network, established in 2012, is a network of poultry researchers and poultry health specialists who address a wide range of issues - from basic biology, to environmental concerns, to poultry disease, production and welfare. The Livestock Research Innovation Corporation works collaboratively on behalf of Ontario livestock and poultry organizations to coordinate research priorities and engage in partnerships to maximize innovation and the return on research.
A joint venture of the University of Guelph, Livestock Research Innovation Corporation (LRIC),Poultry Industry Council (PIC), and the Poultry Health Research Network (PHRN), the poultry industry barbeque brought together industry leaders from the poultry commodity groups and industry with University of Guelph leaders, including UofG President Dr. Franco Vaccarino, UofG Vice President of Research Dr. Malcolm Campbell and Ontario Veterinary College Interim Dean Dr. Kerry Lissemore, and researchers from across the campus and beyond.
In welcoming the group, Ed Verkley, a director with Chicken Farmers of Ontario and chair of the Poultry Industry Council, noted just how important research is for the industry. The Poultry Industry Council works with the industry to deliver poultry extension services, event coordination, program and project management while supporting research for the poultry sector.
The poultry industry is incredibly important to the economy, said UofG president Dr. Franco Vaccarino as he addressed the group.
“Knowledge in action is so very important,” he noted, “and this partnership is an example of that.” He added UofG is doing research at all levels from molecular to production and the questions researchers address often come from the industry.
“The goal of this event was to create a forum for enhanced interactions and dialogue between researchers, as part of the Poultry Health Research Network, and our industry partners,” said Dr. Shayan Sharif, with the Ontario Veterinary College’s Pathobiology department and leader of the PHRN. “By all accounts, this forum delivered what it was meant to do.”
The University of Guelph has had a long-standing commitment to animal health with one of the largest groups of poultry scientists and poultry experts in North America.
The Poultry Health Research Network, established in 2012, is a network of poultry researchers and poultry health specialists who address a wide range of issues - from basic biology, to environmental concerns, to poultry disease, production and welfare.
The Livestock Research Innovation Corporation works collaboratively on behalf of Ontario livestock and poultry organizations to coordinate research priorities and engage in partnerships to maximize innovation and the return on research.
July 7, 2015 - The Poultry Science Association (PSA) released a list of the recipients of its annual awards and other honours for members working in poultry science and related disciplines. All award winners will be formally honoured on July 30 at PSA’s awards celebration during its 104th annual meeting, which will be held July 27-30 at the Galt House Hotel in Louisville, Kentucky.
New PSA Fellows
PSA Fellow is the highest recognition PSA can bestow on a member. An individual is named a PSA Fellow for their professional distinction and contributions to the field of poultry science without regard to longevity. This year four PSA members were selected and are listed below.
- Mary E. Delany, Ph.D. (University of California, Davis)
- Billy M. Hargis, D.V.M., Ph.D. (University of Arkansas)
- Kirk C. Klasing, Ph.D. (University of California, Davis)
- Robert L. Taylor, Jr., Ph.D. (West Virginia University)
Additional PSA Honors and Award Winners
This year PSA will honour over 40 individuals for their accomplishments and contribution to poultry science. PSA awards professional members for their excellence in areas such as research, teaching and Extension. In addition, PSA recognizes student members for their research and extends travel grants to help students attend the PSA annual meeting.
“We extend a big thank you to those that have taken the time to nominate and recognize efforts of friends and colleagues,” PSA President Todd Applegate said. “You certainly have made each committee’s work extremely difficult with the quality and breadth of work exemplified in those nominations.”
- American Egg Board Research Award – Dong Uk Ahn, Ph.D. (Iowa State University) and Hyun-Dong Paik, Ph.D. (Konkuk University)
- American Feed Industry Association Poultry Nutrition Research Award – Mingan Choct, Ph.D. (University of New England)
- Evonik Degussa Award for Achievement in Poultry Science – Gene M. Pesti, Ph.D. (University of Georgia)
- Hy-Line International Research Award – Tri Duong, Ph.D. (Texas A&M University)
- Maple Leaf Farms Duck Research Award – Gregory S. Fraley, Ph.D. (Hope College)
- National Chicken Council Broiler Research Award – Edgar O. Oviedo-Rondon, Ph.D. (North Carolina State University)
- Novus International Teaching Award – Wallace D. Berry, Jr., Ph.D. (Auburn University)
- Phibro Extension Award – Anthony J. Pescatore, Ph.D. (University of Kentucky)
- PSA Early Achievement Award for Extension – Gregory S. Archer, Ph.D. (Texas A&M University)
- PSA Early Achievement Award for Industry – Cesar A. Coto, Ph.D., (Cobb-Vantress, Inc.)
- PSA Student Recruitment Award – Aggie Leadership Council (Texas A&M University)
- Tyson Foods Inc. Support Personnel Award – Pamela Utterback (University of Illinois)
- USPOULTRY Distinguished Poultry Industry Career Award – Igal Pevzner, Ph.D, (Cobb-Vantress, Inc.)
- Zoetis Fundamental Science Award – Alan L. Johnson, Ph.D. (Penn State University)
Honorary PSA Members
- T. Pearse Lyons Ph.D (Alltech)
- Alltech Student Research Manuscript Award – Xi Chen (Purdue University)
- Biomin Latin American Graduate Student Travel Grant Award – Tiago Ferreira Birro Oliveira (Universidade Federal de Lavras)
- Jones-Hamilton Co. Undergraduate Student Travel Grant Award –Maurice Stein Fellowship Award – Prafulla Regmi (Michigan State University)
- Timothy J. Broderick (Texas A&M University)
- Kyle D. Brown (Texas A&M University)
- Caitlin E. Harris (University of Georgia)
- B. Danielle Mahaffey (University of Arkansas)
- Grace A. Parker (Virginia Tech)
- Hunter G. Walters (Texas A&M University)
- PSA Graduate Student Travel Grant Award –
- Abiodun Bello (University of Alberta)
- Isa J. Ehr (Iowa State University)
- Manuel Joao Goncalves Da Costa (University of Georgia)
- Jasper L. T. Heerkens (Institute for Agricultural & Fisheries Research)
- Shurong Li (Penn State University)
- Antrison Morris (Ohio State University)
- Teresa Casey-Trott (University of Guelph)
Andrew F. Giesen III Undergraduate Internship Program Participants
- Katie L. Burt (Texas A&M University)
- Lucas E. Graham (University of Arkansas)
- Nayeem A. Hossain (North Carolina State University)
- Veronica Nacchia (University of Delaware)
- Aaron C. Oxendine (North Carolina State University)
- Kyle Teague (University of Arkansas)
- Grayson K. Walker (North Carolina State University)
Additional Awards to Be Announced
Winners of the Aviagen Turkeys Communications Award, Student Research Certificates of Excellence, and Student Research Certificates of Participation will be announced at the awards celebration. Student Research Certificates of Excellence are presented in recognition of students who have presented high-quality research papers at the annual meeting. Student Research Certificates of Participation are presented to undergraduate students who present research papers at the annual meeting.
Aviagen Turkeys presents an award to a maximum of two graduate student Certificate of Excellence winners at the annual PSA meeting whose oral paper was given with the turkey as the principal unit of research. The award serves to increase awareness of the opportunities available to students who choose to do research with turkeys.
July 7, 2015 - On August 27, join Farm & Food Care Canada in welcoming Dr. Temple Grandin to Guelph. Dr. Grandin is a famed animal behaviorist, author, professor of animal science at Colorado State University and autism awareness advocate.
Dr. Grandin is a world-renowned inspiration to people with autism for her work as an animal behaviorist. Dr. Grandin has developed humane livestock handling systems, and has worked as a consultant to the livestock handling industry on animal care standards. She has, in addition, designed processing facilities in which half the cattle in the United States are handled while working for Burger King, McDonalds, Swift and others.
Dr. Grandin was named by Time Magazine as one of 2010’s “100 most influential People in the World”. HBO also produced the award-winning biographical film on her life entitled Temple Grandin. She currently speaks around the world on both autism and animal behaviour.
The event will be held on August 27 at the University of Guelph’s War Memorial Hall. Dr. Grandin’s talk begins at 7:00 p.m. and will be followed by a Q&A session. A reception with Dr. Grandin begins at 8:00 p.m. Attendees are welcome to bring their copies of Dr. Grandin’s books to have them autographed.
Tickets are $50 each (includes a $20 charitable receipt) or $30 for students. Free parking will also be provided. Tickets can be ordered through www.FarmCareFoundation.ca or by phone at 519-837-1326.
July 1, 2015 - Hendrix Genetics and NPM Capital, a subsidiary of family-owned, SHV Holdings, have completed an agreement that will advance the animal breeding sector. Through the issue of new shares, NPM has become a 25 per cent minority shareholder in Hendrix Genetics, alongside existing shareholders. The Hendrix Family remains the majority and controlling shareholder.
Hendrix Genetics will continue to conduct its business under its current corporate governance and with its existing management team, strategy and structure. Its Vision 2020 plan, created last year, identified many opportunities to invest in R&D, capacity expansion and acquisitions to continue the company’s growth of the last decade. The equity of NPM/SHV will enable Hendrix Genetics to accelerate the execution of its ambitious plan.
Antoon van den Berg, CEO, Co-Shareholder and Co-Founder of Hendrix Genetics commented: “We are privileged as the Management Team of Hendrix Genetics, to have shareholders that fully support the accelerated execution of our ambitions. The fact that we continue to be family-controlled ensures passion and quick decision-making, which is essential to our company’s future.”
Jeroen Drost, CEO of NPM Capital, stated: “We discovered in Hendrix Genetics an ambitious company with dedicated shareholders, capable management and an excellent track-record in building a sound platform for industry consolidation. Their mission to help the world meet the growing demand for food, making animal protein production more efficient, affordable and sustainable perfectly fits our company ethos.”
International Advisory Board
Michel Boucly, member of the International Advisory Board since 2008, will step down per July 1, 2015 and will be succeeded by Cyril Melin, Investment Director of Sofiprotéol.
New member of the International Advisory Board, Investment Director of NPM Capital, Johan Terpstra sees clear benefits: “The strategic and cultural fit of Hendrix Genetics with NPM/SHV was clear from the onset and we look forward to partnering with existing shareholders and management to assist the growth of Hendrix Genetics in the years to come.”
What do poultry manure and emissions from Alberta’s oil sands have in common? They are both connected to a plant-like organism call micro-algae, which could help the province meet its greenhouse gas emissions reduction targets.
Micro-algae grow by leaps and bounds when fed with poultry manure as an organic fertilizer, which in turn make them more effective for scrubbing greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide from industrial facilities and power plants before they enter the atmosphere.
“Chicken manure is high in nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. It contains the main nutrients that algae need,” says Bob Mroz, President and Chief Executive Officer of a Maryland-based biotech company called HY-TEK Bio. It is developing and marketing patented technology using micro-algae for mitigation of greenhouse gases.
Alberta likes the potential of HY-TEK Bio’s technology, as the company was recently awarded a $500,000 grant as part of the $35 million international Grand Challenge: Innovative Carbon Uses competition offered by the province’s Climate Change and Emissions Management Corporation (CCEMC). The corporation collects a levy from large greenhouse gas emitters that in turn is used to fund promising technology aimed at reducing greenhouse gases, like the micro-algae technology offered by HY-TEK Bio.
The company has identified a unique strain of micro-algae that is able to absorb 100 per cent of greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide from flue gases produced by industrial manufacturing and power generation.
Micro-algae are photosynthetic, plant-like organisms that need light, water, carbon dioxide and nutrients, mainly nitrogen and phosphorus. They can feed on compounds like carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxide, sulphur dioxide and volatile organic compounds emitted from such facilities as heavy oil production plants and coal-fired power plants, releasing beneficial oxygen in the process and growing into a plant commodity with considerable commercial potential.
The challenge for HY-TEK Bio has been to find an inexpensive source of nutrients to fertilize the micro-algae to accelerate its growth to perform as advertised in a greenhouse gas mitigation application. Addition of nutrients like those in poultry manure make the micro-algae grow faster and increases its production, like fertilizer added to a corn crop.
Mroz says that as the company worked to develop its technology, it encountered organizations like the Chesapeake Bay Foundation, which expressed its concerns about poultry manure seeping into the region’s water drainage system, resulting in considerable algae growth in areas like the Chesapeake Bay. Because of this concern, and the availability of grants, HY-TEK Bio approached researchers at the University of Maryland, which has been working with micro-algae extensively for the past four years, to investigate poultry manure’s potential as a cheap nutrient source. The company already has a working demonstration facility with four bioreactors consuming flue gas emissions from a three megawatt, biogas-fueled power plant attached to a City of Baltimore waste water treatment plant.
University of Maryland scientists are now testing poultry manure as a natural fertilizer to feed micro-algae. The overall plan is to develop a pilot project that demonstrates a process that, in addition to showing how the micro-algae mitigates greenhouse gases, also demonstrates how the poultry manure-derived nutrients can be applied to maintain the growth and health of the micro-algae.
Should the application prove successful and commercially attractive, this could pay a significant environmental and economic dividend to poultry and egg producers, as well as help to solve a growing global problem. Not only would producers of poultry manure have a new and better method for manure disposal, but it could also create a new potential income stream for them.
Dr. Feng Chen, Associate Professor at the University of Maryland Centre for Environmental Science, says there are about 800,000 tons of poultry manure currently being generated annually in the Maryland and Mid-Atlantic area of the United States alone. Most of the manure is land applied as a form of disposal, but the problem is that sometimes the nutrients leach into the water drainage system. An alternative use of this poultry manure as fertilizer for micro-algae would direct that manure into a new, non-polluting direction.
Alberta is one jurisdiction that has shown an interest in what the university and HY-TEK Bio are accomplishing with the use of micro-algae in greenhouse gas mitigation in its massive fossil fuel industry. It has been identified as a notable contributor of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere, especially in its oil sands mining and processing operations.
The University of Maryland research has just started and is being conducted at a basic level, with development of a system to economically extract the nutrients from the raw poultry manure, leading to methods of controlled release of the nutrients to the micro-algae to achieve certain performance targets.
While the research project is still in its early stages, the University of Maryland researchers say that they are “quite encouraged” by the results they have witnessed so far in using poultry manure nutrients to encourage micro-algae growth. The poultry manure they are using was collected from various commercial operations in Maryland. Now, the University is working on such issues as how to develop a consistent liquefied nutrient product from raw poultry manure, given the variability of the raw material from one poultry operation to another.
Mroz says while there is some variability, they all seem to work well as nutrients for micro-algae growth. The main issue is cost of production, taking it from its raw form to a liquid.
“When you are talking about 500 to 1000 of these bioreactor tanks to mitigate a power plant, the nutrient has to be really, really cheap,” says Mroz. About 400 of the company’s micro-algae tanks can fit on one acre, “but we can use multi-storey facilities to increase land usage.”
In addition to establishing an inexpensive process to convert the raw poultry manure to liquid form for use as a micro-algae nutrient, what HY-TEK Bio hopes to achieve through its research project with the University of Maryland is to determine if the brown color of the liquid manure is a deterrent to micro-algae growth because the algae needs as much light as possible to grow.
Should the University successfully develop a method to cost-effectively manufacture a clear, odourless liquid nutrient product from raw poultry manure, Mroz says this also has potential as a marketable, commercial product.
Dr. Russell Hill, Director and Professor at the Institute of Marine and Environmental Technology (IMET) at the University of Maryland Center for Environmental Science, says the University’s research related to using poultry manure as a nutrient source for micro-algae is novel.
“If greenhouse gas mitigation using micro-algae is ever going to really be used on a large scale, the nutrient requirement will be huge,” says Hill. “It could really help to solve the problem of disposal of chicken manure, and potentially it could even put greater value on the chicken manure.”
May 22, 2015 - A national training and certification program for those who handle and transport farm animals will be made available online thanks to $180,000 in government funds. The money comes from Growing Forward 2, a five-year provincial and federal initiative that supports a variety of projects in the agriculture and agri-food industries.
The Canadian Livestock Transport (CLT) Certification program was developed in Alberta in 2007 and has enjoyed national and U.S. participation since the program was moved to the Canadian Animal Health Coalition in 2013. This has included growing international recognition of CLT as an innovative, pioneering program and a leading example of industry-driven leadership in livestock welfare. The overall goal is to help ensure that farm animals in
Canada are transported in a safe and humane manner.
The Canadian Animal Health Coalition is very pleased to receive this funding, said Coalition Chair, Jennifer MacTavish. "It will allow us to advance the highest animal welfare standards in the transport of farm animals," she said. The funding will be used to develop interactive multimedia online materials and delivery of the existing CLT program that is offered to transport drivers and handlers of livestock and poultry.
The program is uniquely Canadian, reflecting Canada's standards and regulations and is available for those who transport or receive cattle, hogs, horses, sheep and poultry. Although voluntary, a growing number of companies that process meat now require drivers and handlers to have this certification, said Mark Beaven, executive director of the non-profit coalition.
It is estimated that 5,000 to 10,000 people are involved in the transportation of animals in Canada. Currently, about 1,500 transport drivers and handlers who load and unload livestock and poultry are certified. Re-training is required every three years to maintain certification and the online program will not only make the recertification process more efficient and consistent but will allow more people across the country to participate, said Beavan.
The training involves everything from knowing the regulations and proper techniques for the safe handling of animals, to loading capacities and avoiding overcrowding as well as biosecurity and other protocols that are necessary to protect agricultural industries. Program details can be found at www.livestocktransport.ca.
"This funding allows us to take the program into the 21st century," he said. "It will be very interactive and intense, but it allows the current participants to be recertified and new ones to come on board and do it at their own pace."
It will build Canada's reputation as "a world leader" in the safe and humane handling of farm animals, he added.
May 7, 2015, Calgary - A breakthrough innovation in enzyme technology is breathing new life into the ability of swine and poultry operations to get the most “bang for bite” possible from feed rations.
Multi-carbohydrase technology – now widely available in the latest Superzyme feed enzyme series from Canadian Bio-Systems Inc. (CBS Inc.) – is designed to deliver higher nutritional extraction from a wide range of animal feeds including corn, soybean meal, wheat, barley, oats, canola meal, flax, peas and distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS).
Particularly effective with young animals, swine trial data results show 11 percent improvement in average daily gain and 15 percent improvement in feed conversion ratio for newly weaned pigs (multi-carbohydrase vs. untreated control). Poultry trial data results show 2.7 percent improvement in body weight gain and 3.2 percent improvement in feed conversion ratio (multi-carbohydrase vs. untreated control, using corn-soy diets).
This adds value to feed, reduces potential waste and presents a new way to gain a competitive advantage and enhanced profitability, says Dr. Bodgan Slominski, head of a long-standing research program in Western Canada that investigates the potential of novel feed ingredients.
“Multi-carbohydrase technology represents the leading-edge of our science-based knowledge on the most effective use of feed enzymes,” says Slominski. “It leverages what we have learned from many years of research to offer a much more comprehensive and sophisticated option than traditional approaches.”
CBS Inc. has funded and partnered in pioneering research on multi-carbohydrase technology to drive this concept forward. This has included numerous key studies directed by Slominski as part of his program at the University of Manitoba, recognized as one of the leading programs of its kind in the world. This research received the Synergy Award for Innovation from the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada as well as the National Research Council Award for Innovation in Industrial Research.
This base of science is providing the foundation for a new wave of multi-carbohydrase technology products, led by Superzyme – “the original multi-carbohydrase.” A flexible platform for use with a variety of swine and poultry diet formulations, Superzyme is becoming widely available for 2015 through expanded distribution in the U.S., Canada and more broadly internationally, say Rob Patterson, Director of Technical Services with CBS Inc.
“The multi-carbohydrase technology embedded in Superzyme is different from other ‘NSP’ enzymes and ‘enzyme cocktails," says Patterson. “This technology utilizes multiple unique enzyme strains that express multiple activities, as opposed to blending single-source enzymes together. Theses enzyme activities are painstakingly identified, researched and developed to ensure they complement one another seamlessly and deliver a high level of both individual and synergistic benefits.”
A new website, www.superzyme.info, offers a valuable resource for industry to learn about the multi-carbohydrase approach. It includes an overview of the Superzyme product, where it fits in the history and evolution of enzyme technology, step-by-step details on the fermentation process, information on competitive advantage benefits, and contact information for sales and support. An extensive technical summary is also available.
"The fact is that if we don’t learn how to recycle nutrients and water, we are doomed. We will start dying off from hunger. This is just one approach to prolong our existence on this planet.”
That ominous warning comes from Nick Savidov, senior research scientist at the Bio-Industrial Opportunities Branch of Alberta Agriculture and Rural Development (AARD).
By recycling nutrients and water, he means extracting the valuable nutrients from waste streams like poultry manure by using microorganisms in an oxygen-rich environment within a device called a bioreactor to mineralize and dissolve the nutrients in a liquid solution. The nutrients can then be re-used as plant food. Savidov describes this as a sustainable approach to agriculture that could help save humanity from starvation down the road.
Tapping into this source of organic fertilizer from aerobic bioreaction is critical to continued human life on Earth, says Savidov, because current synthetic fertilizer sources are non-renewable. For example, he says that according to the most recent survey by the International Fertilizer Development Centre (IFDC), 85 per cent of all phosphorus rock reserves on the planet, which are used to produce phosphorus fertilizers are located in just one area - in Morocco and the Western Sahara. Also, current nitrogen synthetic fertilizers can only be produced using non-renewable fossil fuels. Sources of synthetic fertilizers now in widespread use are a finite resource that will eventually run out. Nutrient and water recycling to capture these same nutrients from animal waste streams offers hope to feeding humanity in future.
He is working with an AARD research team, which includes engineer and system designer, Marc Legault, to demonstrate the use of an aerobic bioreactor to mineralize nutrients from raw poultry manure. They used the dissolved organic fertilizer, called “digestate” to grow market garden vegetables and tree seedlings in a soil-less growing environment. So far, the results have been highly successful.
For example, seedlings of lodgepole pine and white spruce fed with this mineralized organic nutrient stream, “doubled in height after two months. The results exceeded all our expectations,” says Savidov.
The organic fertilizer was also used to grow greenhouse tomatoes, and a 15 per cent higher yield was achieved versus use of synthetic fertilizer because of enhanced nutrient uptake by the plants.
“We demonstrated that we can produce vigorous growth of major nursery crops grown in Alberta and B.C., using poultry manure digestate,” says Savidov.
It is common practice right now to grow market garden vegetables and tree seedlings in greenhouses that use no soil, where the plant roots are immersed in liquid environments and fed computer-controlled, metered amounts of synthetic fertilizers to promote growth. But these Alberta researchers want growers to consider using mineralized organic fertilizers extracted from animal waste instead of synthetic fertilizers because it is a more sustainable form
What’s different and proving more beneficial by using recycled organic fertilizers instead of synthetics is that they are biologically active with beneficial microorganisms. In addition to exceptional growth over a short period of time, the tree seedlings also experienced enhanced root biomass development, robust health such as better resistance to root pathogens, and improved nutrient uptake, meaning that they experienced exceptional growth in low nutrient solutions. In other words, growers can use small amounts to achieve big results, which could be a huge economic benefit. Furthermore, the water used in these soil-less growing systems is recycled so that there is less pollution released to the environment, and the grower achieves greater water use and nutrient uptake efficiencies.
Researchers chose to work with poultry manure as their raw material because it was readily available, rich in nitrogen, and less fibrous than cattle manure, which because of its fibre content, takes longer to ferment. The processed poultry manure resulted in organic fertilizer with low sodium content, which can be toxic to plants in higher concentrations, and pH within the tolerable range for plants.
Savidov emphasizes that whether it is synthetic fertilizers or this type of organic fertilizer, the nutrients have to be mineralized so they can be used as plant food. He adds that what’s new about this process versus the common practice of creating organic fertilizer by composting manure is that this aerobic bioreaction conversion process is much faster -- taking two to three weeks versus three months to a year with composting. Also, this method results in 100 per cent conversion of the raw manure to valuable, liquid plant food versus composting or the other commonly known method of converting animal manure to organic fertilizer — anaerobic digestion. This is the process of converting manure to organic fertilizer and biogas in an oxygen-free environment.
The researchers’ goals were to prove that it is possible to create a liquid, biologically-active, organic fertilizer from raw animal manure using their aerobic fermentation method and that plant response from this organic fertilizer in a soil-less growing environment is as good as or better than the use of synthetic fertilizers.
Savidov says it is possible to extract valuable nutrients using their bioreactor system from all forms of animal manure or other food and agriculture by-products but they started with poultry manure. Ultimately, converting manure to a liquid nutrient stream using their bioreactor technology could represent a new income stream for farmers like poultry producers, as well as a non-synthetic, biologically active, fertilizer source for growers. The conversion process also produces heat, which can be used to heat poultry barns.
An aerobic bioreactor is not expensive, space-age technology. It is easily achievable, relatively inexpensive technology. The bioreactor is simply a septic tank with a built-in agitator. Oxygen and water is added to the tank along with the manure to create a slurry. Intense mixing within the tank is critical to maintain consistent fermentation. Savidov says there is no odor during the reaction process, except when the raw manure is added because oxygen reacts with common odor-causing compounds like hydrogen sulfide. Because all components within the raw manure will completely mineralize over different time intervals, there will be some solid material left in the liquid outfeed stream after three weeks. After about three weeks, the bioreactor is stopped and the processed liquid is removed to a filtration tank. The solids are separated from the liquid and returned to the bioreactor for further fermentation, while the liquid stream is ready for use as organic fertilizer.
“To be honest, it’s not really an absolutely new system,” says Savidov. “It’s using bits and pieces of what is already used in the agriculture industry for manure treatment.” He adds that greenhouses and nurseries would have to change very little to convert from synthetic fertilizer use to this type of organic fertilizer.
The researchers hope that aerobic fermentation of animal manure into organic fertilizer will become a common practice, either on farms, by commercial organic fertilizer producers, or directly at greenhouses or tree nurseries. It is currently used in some parts of Europe to treat cattle manure.
April 13, 2015 - A simple and effective portable tool to predict avian flu outbreaks on farms
has been created by University of Guelph researchers.
U of G researchers devised a real-time way to analyze chickens and other farm birds for avian flu. The tool uses a small blood sample and relies on a simple chemical colour change to see not only whether a chicken has avian flu but also what viral strain is involved.
Current tests require samples to be sent to a lab, where it can take eight hours to a couple of days to yield results. That's too long, said Prof. Suresh Neethirajan, School of Engineering.
"Treatment, especially when dealing with humans who have been infected,needs to start as soon as possible," he said. "This test only needs two to three minutes to incubate, and then you get the
results immediately. Not only that, but it is more cost-effective. Conventional techniques are time-consuming and labour-intensive, and requirespecial facilities and expensive laboratory instruments."
A study about the device will appear in an upcoming issue of the scientific journal Sensors, published by Molecular Diversity Preservation International (MDPI).
Last week, Canadian officials placed eight farms in southern Ontario under quarantine after an avian influenza outbreak caused the sudden deaths of thousands of birds over several days.
Preliminary testing on the strain was conducted at U of G's Animal Health Lab.
An outbreak of avian flu also took place in Canada in January and December of 2014.
Neethirajan and post-doctoral researcher Longyan Chen wanted to create a test that could be used by anyone, even a non-scientist.
"That is why we designed it so that the final colour changes based on what type of influenza it is, and it can differentiate between a human strain and a bird strain," said Neethirajan.
"It's critical to get out front of any outbreaks. There are many strains, and we need to know the source of the flu. The identification of the strain determines what treatment options we should use."
The device uses gold nanoparticles (microscopic particles) and glowing quantum dots. The researchers developed a novel approach for rapid and sensitive detection of surface proteins of viruses from blood samples of turkeys.
The new nanobiosensor can detect the strains of H5N1 and H1N1. The most recent outbreak was from H5N2, which is similar to H5N1, Neethirajan said. With some architecture modifications, the developed biosensing technique has the potential to detect the H5N2 strain as well, he said.
The subtype H1N1 is human adapted while most H5 are avian oriented, Neethirajan added.
"We're creating a rapid animal health diagnostic tool that needs less volume of blood, less chemicals and less time. We will be able to determine, almost immediately, the difference between virus sub-strains from human and avian influenza."
As consumers, retailers and the broader community continue to demand movement towards housing systems that place high value on offering improved behavioural opportunities for hens, it’s important to track measures related to their physical condition. Do the proposed solutions carry unintended consequences? What are the physiological and physical effects of more open housing systems?
As a benchmarking tool, researchers Mike Petrik, Michele Guerin and Tina Widowski have just published a study that gives a snapshot of commercial Ontario brown laying hens in cage and non-cage systems using three welfare indicators: keel bone fracture prevalence, feather scores and cumulative mortality. These three parameters are typically used to reflect some of the physical aspects of the welfare status of the hens.
Benchmarking welfare indicators from alternative housing systems is important to ensure that progress is made in improving their well-being. This is the first study in North America to compare housing systems on multiple farms as well as providing a more detailed assessment of keel fractures during the life of a flock.
There are 64 farms in Ontario housing brown hens in cages with an average flock size of 9,965, while 27 farms average 9,410 hens per flock in floor-housed systems. For their study, Petrik et al. recruited nine commercial farms that housed brown hens in cages and eight farms using floor systems. Only brown hens were included because there are no white hen flocks housed using floor systems in Ontario at present.
All hens were beak trimmed; caged pullets were grown in caged housing and floor flocks were grown in single-tier floor pullet houses. All birds were fed a commercial diet that was adjusted to individual flock requirements.
Hens were sampled four times over the course of lay, at 20, 35, 50 and 65 weeks of age. At each visit, 50 hens were weighed and palpated for evidence of healed keel bone fractures. Feather scores were assigned based on evaluation of the neck, back, breast and vent. The daily records maintained by the farmer provided mortality data.
Keel fracture prevalence was significantly higher for the floor housing compared to conventional housing. As birds neared the end of lay at 65 weeks, the fracture rate was 54.7% compared to 40% for caged flocks. These floor-flock figures were comparable to those for floor birds in Europe (45 to 86%) but the conventional numbers were greater than those reported in conventional cages in the UK (26 to 30%). This might be due to the difference in cage size (483 cm2 in North America vs. 550 cm2 in Europe) that may result in more piling behaviour, or possibly cage design or nutritional factors.
Keel fractures are often attributed to traumatic injury. Five of the eight floor barns in this study had no perches; the researchers suggested that fixed perches were not a contributing factor to the incidence of keel bone fractures in these flocks.
While most studies evaluate keel fractures at the end of lay, this study points to fractures occurring much earlier in production. In this study, the fracture prevalence increased substantially from 20 to 50 weeks in both floor and cage systems, after which the incidence stabilized. This is a serious concern because fractures occuring early in lay results in a higher potential for chronic pain over the course of production.
Flock-level mean feather score was not significantly affected by the housing system, possibly due to the hens having been beak trimmed. Cumulative mortality tended to be lower (1.29%) for cage housing than floor housing (2.13%), but the figure for floor housing was much lower than in other studies, which have indicated that non-cage systems put hens at a much higher risk for feather pecking, cannibalism and mortality for various reasons. These feather condition and mortality results showed that these Ontario flocks performed really well.
Mean body weight was lower but more uniform in floor housed flocks compared to cage housed flocks, possibly due to a higher activity level and the need to search for feed. Heavier birds had more fractures, so in a chicken or egg type of question, did heavier birds have more keel fractures because of their weight, or were they heavier because of less activity due to the fracture? Production parameters and behaviour were not evaluated in this study.
More work is indicated to identify specific risk factors and etiology of keel fractures, especially if non-cage housing becomes more common in North America. These findings indicate that younger hens, between 20 and 35 weeks of age, showed the highest incidence of keel bone fractures and should be the focus of future studies.
As the layer industry continues to evolve, the benchmarking of welfare indicators from alternative housing systems from this study will help to ensure that progress is being made to improve the well-being of the hens.
This research was funded by Egg Farmers of Canada and the Ontario Ministry of Agriculture and Food. The researchers would like to thank participating egg farmers in Ontario for allowing access to their flocks and records.
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